Callide Power Station

Callide PFAS monitoring

CS Energy is conducting an investigation into the potential environmental impact of our historical use of PFAS at Callide Power Station.

Callide's use of PFAS was infrequent and in small quantities for training, testing and emergency response purposes. We removed firefighting foams containing non-compliant levels of PFAS in 2019 as part of a Queensland Government policy to phase out their use.

Monitoring program

CS Energy is working with an independent environmental testing firm to understand the impact of our historical PFAS use at Callide Power Station. We are also working closely with the Department of Environment and Science and Queensland Health, and following their advice.

The health of the community and our employees is CS Energy’s key priority and will guide our actions throughout the monitoring program. We are speaking directly with affected landholders and proactively updating the broader Biloela community and our employees.

Working with DES

We are working cooperatively with the Department of Environment and Science (DES) on an Environmental Evaluation notice.

An Environmental Evaluation is a compliance tool under the Environmental Protection Act 1994 that aims to evaluate and facilitate a solution for an event that has caused, or is likely to cause, environmental harm. We have been working closely with DES, structuring our response to date as if we were already under an Environmental Evaluation framework.

It requires CS Energy to take certain action by specific timeframes. This includes appointing a suitably qualified person to carry out the requirements of the notice, along with a contaminated land auditor, which we have already done. We are also required to develop a Sampling Analysis and Quality Plan and undertake sampling, which is already under way.

CS Energy formally submitted our response to the Environmental Evaluation to DES in September 2022. This included a summary of sampling methodologies and results to date.

The work we did as part of the Environmental Evaluation identified further areas for CS Energy to investigate in relation to sources and pathways around the Callide Power Station.

DES have now responded to our report and have advised they will extend the timeframe of the Environmental Evaluation by 12 months so we can do this further investigation work. This submission was due by October 2023.

We recently requested an extension from DES on this timeframe to allow us to fully complete work to investigate additional PFAS sources around Callide Power Station and how the PFAS is moving through the environment.

DES have now extended the timeframe for this response to March 2024. 

Test results & Recent activities

28/08/2023 - Latest sampling results and updated map

Landholder sampling

We have now completed the third round of landholder sampling in zones 1 to 6 and are currently updating all landholders of their results. 

To date the results show that concentrations of PFAS are generally stable and in some areas reducing, across the investigation area. There has been some variation in results between sampling events. However, the technical monitoring program indicates that a long-term trend is developing where the levels are remaining stable or reducing.  

At present, we do not have any further landholder sampling scheduled for this year. 

Technical monitoring

To date we have completed seven rounds of the quarterly Technical Monitoring Program. 

This monitoring is in addition to landholder property sampling activities. This program samples in strategic locations across the investigation area to give an overview of how PFAS is moving through the environment and through different seasons.

The results help us understand if there is movement of PFAS levels across the whole area. 

We will continue this program in this form while we finalise the Environmental Evaluation due in early 2024. Once this is complete, we will design a plan for ongoing sampling requirements.  

Updated map  (PDF 8.4MB)

28/08/2023 - Aquatic biota sampling report and summary information sheet

As part of an upcoming Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment, sampling on aquatic biota was undertaken in January and February 2023. 

Based on the work done to date, the preliminary findings are that the fish and crustaceans that people would most commonly eat (e.g. barramundi and red claw crayfish) within Callide Dam did not have PFAS detected in the samples. Queensland Health advises there is no need to avoid eating fish from the Callide Dam.

PFAS was found in the samples from Callide Creek, downstream of the Callide Dam. Queensland Health advises that with the levels of PFAS found in the Callide Creek, an infrequent meal (every few months) of fish from the creek would not make a significant contribution to an individual’s overall exposure to PFAS.

The aquatic biota sampling will form part of the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment (HHERA). We wanted to share the findings now, however, it’s important to note it needs to be considered in the context of the HHERA when it’s complete. A HHERA looks at the combined risks of exposure pathways (e.g. drinking water, bathing, eating food). It takes a holistic approach to understanding what the combined risk is. 

A qualified risk assessor will undertake this work. We expect it to start in September, with a finalised report in early to mid-2024. 

15/06/2022 - Hydrogeological Review and updated map 

Since September 2021 CS Energy has been progressing several different activities as we continue to respond to the legacy use of PFAS at Callide Power Station.

These activities are:

  • Hydrogeological modelling to further understand PFAS and its movement in groundwater and surface water.
  • Resampling groundwater bores on landholder properties.
  • Technical sampling in strategic locations on a quarterly basis.
  • Planning for soil remediation at the power station.

This newsletter, emailed to landholders 15 June provides an update on these activities. Included in the newsletter was an updated map showing the inferred levels of PFOS and PFHxS (PDF 6.4MB)

Hydrogeological review

CS Energy engaged two hydrogeologists to do some modelling to help us understand the geology of the aquifer and how water and PFAS are moving through it.

A report has been produced that summarises the finding of this work: Callide Power Station - PFAS Investigation - Hydrogeological Review  (PDF 5.4MB)

 

21/12/2021 - Updated map reflecting resampling

Since September 2021 CS Energy has been working through re-sampling private landholder bores in our investigation area.

To date, re-sampling is showing results are largely consistent with sampling undertaken in early 2021.

We have been re-sampling chronologically, starting with zone 1.

We are 60 per cent through this plan with most landholders in zones 1 to 4 being resampled.

We expect to be able to finalise any outstanding sampling for zones 1 to 3 in January 2022 and move on to zones 4, 5 and 6 in February and March 2022.

In addition to landholder re-sampling, our technical experts have been doing some additional sampling. This will continue on a quarterly basis until at least April 2022.

In the new year we will continue with landholder and technical program sampling.

In addition, we expect to receive advice from two hydrogeologists that have been doing some modelling to further understand PFAS movement in the groundwater onsite and downstream of the site.

Their work will help give us insight to guide decision making about future sampling. We are not ruling sampling in other areas in, or out, at this stage.

And, on site at Callide Power Station, we will be engaging a specialist in soil remediation.

View the map (PDF 8.4MB)

03/09/2021 - Results for zones 1 to 6

CS Energy has a released an updated map summarising the results of its PFAS testing to date.

The map summarises the results from sampling conducted on 82 landholder properties this year. It includes about six months of testing in six zones near the Callide Power Station.

Results snapshot:

  • 82 landholder properties were tested, and of this 82, 23 landholders had at least one sample point over drinking water guidelines. CS Energy is working with landholders on an individual basis to provide an alternative domestic water supply.
  • The remaining 59 landholder properties returned results under the drinking water guidelines.

We’ve talked to landholders about their results and provided them with a lab report and advice from Qld Health and other government agencies.

View the map summarising results in zones 1 to 6 (PDF 1.7MB)

NEXT STEPS

Over the next six months (to early 2022) CS Energy is undertaking a series of actions, including resampling landholder bores, ongoing monitoring, hydrogeological review and on-site (at the power station) remediation.

Read more about the next steps in the newsletter (PDF 210.8KB)

18/06/2021 – Results for zones 1 to 5

CS Energy has released a map summarising the latest results of its PFAS sampling program on landholder properties near Callide Power Station.

The map summarises results across five sampling zones – the results from zone 1 that were released on 31 March and new results released today covering zones 2 – 5.

Results snapshot:

  • Of the 70 landholders in zones 1 to 5, 19 landholders had at least one sample point over drinking water guidelines, with four of those landholders using it for drinking water. CS Energy is working with landholders on an individual basis to provide an alternative drinking water supply.
  • The remaining 51 landholder properties returned results under the drinking water guidelines.

View the map summarising zone 1 to 5 results. (PDF 8.1MB)

CS Energy has provided each landholder with their results, including their own laboratory report, relevant advice from Queensland Health and information from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries about using bore water for irrigating crops and for livestock.

Next steps

So far, the results indicate that the further downstream we go, higher levels of PFAS are generally found north of the Callide Creek. We want to get a more complete picture of what concentration is happening in the area by testing in a new zone south of the creek.

This new area (zone 6) is bound by Dawson Highway, Callide Creek, Tognolini Baldwin road and Jambin Dakenba Road. We completed sampling in early June and expect the results in the next few weeks.

Over the coming months, CS Energy also intends to conduct a hydrogeological review, sampling of aquatic organisms, and a human health and ecological risk assessment. This will give further insight into how water flows in the area, and any ongoing potential exposure for people and the environment.

CS Energy will continue to provide information to landholders and the community about the program of work going forward.

31/03/2021 - Results from testing on landholder properties in zone 1

CS Energy has divided the sampling area near Callide Power Station into four geographic zones so that the testing can be carried out as efficiently as possible. We’ve been receiving the results in batches and we how have all the results for zone 1.

In zone 1:

  • Samples were collected from 21 landholders’ properties in the area downstream along Callide Creek to just past the Linkes Road creek crossing.
  • Seven landholders had at least one sample point over drinking water guidelines, with four of those landholders using it for drinking water. CS Energy has organised an alternative drinking water supply for these four landholders.
  • The remaining 14 landholder properties returned results under the drinking water guidelines.

CS Energy has provided each landholder with their results, including their own laboratory report, relevant advice from Queensland Health and the Department of Environment and Science, and information from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries about using bore water for irrigating crops and for livestock.

View a map summarising zone 1 results (PDF 7.6MB)

Next steps 

Further work is required to better understand the variable nature of the results and the influence of factors such as bore depth, age and volume of use; aquifer connectivity; and interaction between surface water and groundwater.

Testing is still under way for properties in the other sampling zones. As we continue to receive results for each zone we will periodically update the map on our website. We expect to release the results for zones 2 and 3 in May.

Our technical experts are also developing a longer term PFAS monitoring and management program in consultation with the Department of Environment and Science.

01/03/2021 - Sampling underway on landholder properties

In February 2021 we sampled on private landholder property in same section of Callide Creek as our January sampling program. We also did some extra sampling further downstream of Linkes Road at the request of some landholders.

The results are coming through in batches over February and March. Early results have shown a mix of PFAS levels above and below drinking water guidelines. Once we have all of the results, we’ll provide an update on the findings on this web page.

Our first priority is to talk through individual results with each landholder and provide them with their own lab report and the relevant advice from Queensland Health and the Department of Environment and Science.

In the meantime, we are continuing with our sampling program and will broaden the testing area to include properties between the Linkes Road creek crossing and the Dawson Highway.

22/02/2021 - Banana Shire Council tests of Biloela town water 

Following CS Energy's detection of PFAS in some locations near Callide Power Station, the Banana Shire Council tested the Biloela town water supply.

The results of Council's tests found that the Biloela water supply is safe to drink. Read the Council's update on their Facebook page.

08/02/2021 - Initial findings from sampling in January 2021

In January 2021 CS Energy's independent environmental testing firm took samples on site, and off site in the area adjacent to the power station.

Samples were taken adjacent to the power station and various locations along Callide Creek between the station and approximately four kilometres downstream to the Linkes Road creek crossing. None of the sample sites were on private property.

KEY FINDINGS
  • The tests found that at locations within and outside our site, there were levels of PFAS detected that were higher than the government guidelines for drinking water and species protection.
  • While some results were above the government guidelines, they were significantly lower than at other sites in Queensland that had PFAS in their groundwater.
  • We are working with the Department of Environment and Science (DES) and Queensland Health on these results.
  • DES and Queensland Health have identified one location about 4km downstream (near Linkes Road) as the priority public health focus area given its proximity to private property and distance from the power station.
  • The other locations that were above guidelines are either on, or very close to the power station site, and in the predicted flow path of PFAS.

Callide PFAS sampling area map (PDF 6.4MB)

NEXT STEPS

Going forward, we'll be doing more monitoring and testing of water samples from the surrounding catchment. Over coming weeks and months we’ll be sampling on and off our site, and working with potentially affected landholders to test their bores they use for domestic purposes. 

For more information, please read the CS Energy fact sheet for landholders (PDF 158.7KB)

Quick links

Newsletters 

December 2023 End of year update and 2024 plans (PDF 98.4KB)
August 2023 Aquatic biota sampling results and project update (PDF 313.8KB)
January 2023 Aquatic biota sampling starting soon (PDF 242.6KB)
December 2022 CS Energy's plans for 2023 (PDF 244.1KB)
October 2022 Response to Environmental Evaluation and next steps  (PDF 316.4KB) 
June 2022 Hydrogeological review and next steps  (PDF 174.9KB)
October 2021 Next steps - displayed at community walk-in session - October (PDF 210.8KB)

 

Maps

August 2023 Map summarising results of PFAS sampling - as at August 2023 (PDF 8.4MB)
June 2022 Map summarising results of PFAS sampling - as at June 2022 (PDF 6.4MB) 
December 2021 Map summarising results of PFAS sampling - as at December 2021 (PDF 8.4MB)
 

Fact sheets

February 2024

Australian Government enHealth Fact Sheet on PFAS

 Australian Government enHealth Guidance Statement on PFAS

August 2023 Timeline - showing overview of process and status of work as at August 2023 (PDF 825.2KB)
December 2022 Timeline - showing overview of process and status of work (PDF 429.2KB)  
June 2021 CS Energy - fact sheet - Understanding PFAS (with updated timeline) (PDF 10.4MB)
April 2021 CS Energy - fact sheet - Understanding PFAS (displayed at community walk in session) (PDF 6.5MB)
  Qld Health fact sheet (PDF 281.1KB)

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries fact sheet for primary producers (PDF 169.5KB)

Reports

 August 2023
 April 2022 Callide Power Station – PFAS Investigation – Hydrogeological Review  (PDF 5.4MB)   
 

Finding support

Everyone manages uncertainty and stress differently. A number of support services are available to you, including your GP. The Australian Government funds a range of services for people affected by PFAs, including Better Access and Head to Health. Find out more at health.gov.au

CS Energy is also offering landholders in the sampling zones near the Callide Power Station access to our Employee Assistance Program providers, Assure Program.

If you feel you need support, you’re invited to call Assure on 1800 808 374 (24 hours).

Assure will provide affected landholders with free, confidential support, with no GP referral required. This service will be available for at least the next six months.

Download Assure's FAQ document with more information here (PDF 230.3KB)

Frequently asked questions

About PFAS

All foams currently onsite meet legislative requirements. That is, they either contain no PFAS, or the levels of PFAS are below the legislative limits. We are now sourcing replacement foams to replace even our foams that are compliant in an effort to remove all foams containing PFAS from our sites.

PFAS (per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances) are a group of manufactured chemicals present in firefighting foams that were historically used at various Australian sites including civil airports, defence bases, ports and large industrial sites.

PFAS is also found in common products such as non-stick cooking pans, fabric, furniture and food packaging.

Health experts are still working to fully understand PFAS. There is currently no consistent evidence that PFAS exposure causes adverse human health effects. However, because there is uncertainty and PFAS can accumulate in the body with continued exposure, it is prudent to reduce exposure to PFAS as far as is practicable.

PFAS are found at very low levels in the blood of the general population around the world. The general public is exposed to small amounts of PFOS and PFOA in everyday life.

Levels of PFAS in the blood will decrease over time if exposure is minimised.

Experts are still working to fully understand PFAS. There is currently no consistent evidence that PFAS exposure causes adverse human health effects.

You can find more information about PFAS online at Queensland Health’s website

Just like many businesses and industries in Australia, CS Energy has used PFAS in the past. Our use of PFAS fire-fighting foams over the years was infrequent, and in small quantities for training, testing and emergency response, unlike the more substantial use at other sites in Australia, such as defence bases. 

To put it in context, we have used about 500-1,000 litres over the entire life of the power station, which is around 0.1% of the amount used at the Oakey Army Aviation site. 

CS Energy stopped using these foams when they became non-compliant in 2019, as part of a Queensland Government policy to phase out their use. We are sourcing replacement compliant foams and we have a project under way to remove additional foams containing PFAS, even those that are compliant with the Queensland Government's policy.

CS Energy's testing program

During the testing program, CS Energy will periodically publish maps on our website showing indicative PFAS levels for the sampling areas. These maps will not include individual property boundaries.

To ensure our monitoring program and response meets Government requirements and community expectations, landowner information may be shared with relevant government agencies and other affected entities. Those organisations include, but are not limited to: Queensland Health, The Department of Environment and Science and the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.

CS Energy has provided landowners with a Privacy Statement that provides further detail on how their information will be collected, used and shared by CS Energy.
 

The testing protocol was stringent. Each sample was collected on landowner properties by someone appropriately trained in PFAS sampling. 

The samples were then subject to strict quality assurance processes during transport, storage and handling. 

This included temperature control and minimising exposure to light. The samples were then assessed against drinking water and recreation water guidelines. 
 

It is not known whether there are potentially other sources contributing to PFAS levels in the Callide Creek or local groundwater.

Information about PFAS in Queensland is available at https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/pollution/management/disasters/investigation-pfas/sites
 

2018 – 2020 

CS Energy has been working with an independent environmental testing firm and the Department of Environment and Science (DES) since 2018 to understand potential impacts associated with of our historical PFAS use at Callide Power Station. 

In December 2018, DES requested CS Energy complete a voluntary investigation into the potential impacts associated with historical use of fire-fighting foams at our sites.

This involved conducting a desktop review and site inspections of Callide Power Station in 2019, and sampling onsite at Callide Power Station in 2020.

January 2021


In January 2021 CS Energy's independent environmental testing firm took samples on site, directly adjacent to the power station and at various locations along Callide Creek between the station and approximately four kilometres downstream to the Linkes Road creek crossing. None of the sample sites were on private property.

The test results from some sample locations on Callide Creek were above guideline levels for drinking water and species protection. These results required us to work with Queensland Health. While some results were above the government guidelines, they were significantly lower than at other sites in Queensland that had PFAS in their groundwater. 

February 2021


In February 2021 we sampled on private landholder property in the same section of Callide Creek as our January 2021 sampling program. We also did some extra sampling further downstream of Linkes Road at the request of some landholders.

The results were received in batches over February and March and showed a mix of PFAS levels above and below drinking water guidelines.

March 2021


We expanded our testing area to extend from the power station to the Dawson Highway. We divided the sampling area into three geographic zones (zones 1, 2 and 3) so that testing could be carried out as efficiently as possible.

In zone 1:
Samples were collected from 21 landholders’ properties in the area downstream along Callide Creek to just past the Linkes Road creek crossing.
Seven landholders had at least one sample point over drinking water guidelines, with four of those landholders using it for drinking water. CS Energy has organised an alternative drinking water supply for these four landholders.
The remaining 14 landholder properties returned results under the drinking water guidelines.
CS Energy provided each landholder with their results, including their own laboratory report, relevant advice from Queensland Health and the Department of Environment and Science, and information from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries about using bore water for irrigating crops and for livestock.
 

View a map summarising the Zone 1 results. (PDF 7.6MB)

April 2021 onwards

Further work is required to better understand the variable nature of the results and the influence of factors such as bore depth, age and volume of use; aquifer connectivity; and interaction between surface water and groundwater.

Testing is still under way for properties in zones 2 and 3. We are also extending to zone 4 (between the power station and the dam) and zone 5 (south of the Dawson Highway). As we continue to receive results for each zone, we will periodically update the map on our website. We expect to release the results for all testing by late May or early June. 

Our technical experts are also developing a longer term PFAS monitoring and management program in consultation with the Department of Environment and Science.
 

 

Our technical consultant is developing a long term monitoring plan that, once agreed with the government departments, will be implemented. It will likely involve monitoring a select number of sites a number of times each year until we have a clear understanding of the extent of PFAS migration.

Each time new information or sampling results are received and analysed our technical consultant may adjust the monitoring plan based on the new information. 

We will be happy to share each landowner’s results and information to them as it becomes available. Our goal is to be fully transparent with each landowner.
 

Drinking water guidelines

To minimise exposure, Queensland Health advises these landowners to stop using the water from the sample point/s that exceed the guideline on their property for the following:

  • Drinking the water
  • Using for cooking
  • Personal hygiene (includes activities such as brushing teeth and showering)
  • Eating produce like meat, veggies, or eggs that use water from this sample point on your property.

The Queensland Health advice only applies to the locations that are non-compliant with the guideline. They also advise activities such as swimming and sprinkler play are safe if the detection is above the drinking water guideline, but below the recreational water guideline.

 

The guidelines are set in accordance with the Australian drinking water guidelines, which provide an authoritative reference on what defines safe, good quality drinking water. Where health guideline values exist, they tend to be conservative in nature, ensuring that public health is protected.

The Australian drinking water guidelines for the total PHOS plus PFHxS are 0.07 µg per litre and 0.56 μg per litre for PFOA. PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA are different types of PFAS.  

The Australian drinking water guidelines measure in µg = micrograms. That is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram. 

There is more information about the drinking water guidelines in this  fact sheet from the federal Department of Health
 

We are working with landholders where PFAS levels in their bores are above drinking water guidelines to provide an alternative safe water supply while we continue to understand the extent of PFAS in the area. 

The duration of water assistance will depend on the outcomes of further testing and individual household water use and options assessed on a case-by-case basis. 
 

The advice from Queensland Health is that you can continue to drink the bore water. The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries advises you can continue to use the water for irrigating crops and for livestock whether they are above or below drinking water guidelines.

However, we recognise that you may feel uncertain, and may want to limit exposure.

Queensland Health advises you may wish to follow the advice for minimising exposure as a precautionary measure. 

  • Avoid drinking the water
  • Avoid using for cooking
  • Avoid using the water for personal hygiene (includes activities such as brushing teeth and showering, but not swimming or sprinkler play)
  • Avoid eating produce like meat or eggs from your property.

You may want to source an alternative water supply, such as from the standpipe in town (via application from Banana Shire Council) or from rainwater tanks. Queensland Health provides guidance on rainwater in their Safe Water on Rural Properties fact sheet found here: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/public-health/industry-environment/environment-land-water/water/quality/drinking

Importantly, Banana Shire Council conducted PFAS testing on the town water supply in February 2021 and advised it was within drinking water guidelines.

The recreational guidelines for water use for activities like swimming and sprinkler play are set by the National Health and Medical Research Council. They are set at a level that is higher than the drinking water guidelines. They are based around the method of exposure being by accidentally swallowing water – not by water having contact with skin. 

These are: the total concentration of PFOS plus PFHxS should not exceed 2 μg per litre and 10 μg per litre for PFOA. This is calculated on an estimated accidental ingestion of 30 litres per year. 

Health

Queensland Health does not recommend getting a blood test because there is so much uncertainty about whether or not PFAS is directly linked to health outcomes. Globally there is a lot of testing to understand any health impacts in humans.  

Queensland Health has a more information about PFAS and their advice on blood tests in its fact sheet available at https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/pollution/management/disasters/investigation-pfas/about

If you have any health concerns or questions, Queensland Health advises people to talk to their GP or call 13HEALTH on 13 43 25 84. 
 

The time it takes for PFAS to be excreted from the body is the same for adults and children. In humans, studies suggest that the half-life of PFAS could range from two to nine years.


Queensland Health advises there is currently no consistent evidence that exposure to PFAS causes poor outcomes in pregnant women or their babies. If you’re concerned then Queensland Health advises that you talk to your GP. 

See the fact sheet. https://www.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/95312/pfas-fact-sheet.pdf 
 

An independent Expert Health Panel established by the Australian Government concluded that there is mostly limited, or no evidence, that human exposure to PFAS is linked with human disease. Importantly, there is no current evidence that high levels of PFAS exposure results in a large impact on a person’s health. The panel also concluded there is “no current evidence that suggests an increase in overall cancer risk”.

According to the panel, much of the available evidence is weak and inconsistent. It said that decisions to minimise exposure to PFAS chemicals should be largely based on their known ability to persist and accumulate in the body.

The panel was comprised of experts in environmental health, toxicology, epidemiology and public health. They considered Australian and international scientific research as well as the views of the public in forming its advice to the Government.

The panel acknowledged there is some research that identifies associations with health outcomes such as high cholesterol. However, there is limited or no evidence of human disease accompanying these associations and many of them are not considered to be clinically significant and require further research.

The expert panel's report is available online at: 

https://webarchive.nla.gov.au/wayback/20190416215328/http:/www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-pfas-expert-panel.htm 

 

Queensland Health advises people that they can continue to breastfeed.

See the fact sheet: https://www.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/95312/pfas-fact-sheet.pdf 

We want to make sure you have accurate information on this as we’re not health experts. We recommend giving Queensland Health a ring on 13 Health and they can help answer your questions.

For information, this is an extract from their fact sheet that’s available online.

Fact sheet extract: 

Are there any health effects linked to PFAS in humans? 

The potential effects of PFAS on human health continue to be studied. These studies involve laboratory animal studies, as well as occupationally exposed workers (i.e. manufacturing workers), residents of PFAS contaminated areas and studies of the general population in the USA and other countries.

Research into the long-term exposure of laboratory animals to PFOS and PFOA has shown adverse effects on the liver, gastrointestinal tract and thyroid hormones. However, the applicability of these studies to humans is not well established. The existing limited studies on PFHxS suggest that this chemical can cause effects in laboratory animals similar to the effects caused by PFOS. However, based on available animal studies, PFHxS appears to be less potent than PFOS.

Source: https://www.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/95312/pfas-fact-sheet.pdf 


Livestock

The Department of Agriculture and Fishers (DAF) advises us that there are currently no restrictions in place in Queensland on the sale or movement of plant or animal products produced in areas affected by PFAS contamination. 

DAF acts in accordance with relevant policy and legislation and will advise producers in affected areas if this situation changes. 
 

The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF) advises us that there are currently no restrictions in place in Queensland on the sale or movement of plant or animal products produced in areas affected by PFAS contamination. 

DAF acts in accordance with relevant policy and legislation and will advise producers in affected areas if this situation changes. 
 

The Department of Agriculture and Fishers advises you can continue to use the bore water for irrigating crops and for livestock.

There is no evidence to suggest PFAS has a detrimental effect on stock or plant health at levels likely to be found in contaminated areas.

If you are concerned, you can minimise exposure to PFAS by using an alternative source of water. 
 

The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF) advises you can continue to use the bore water for irrigating crops and for livestock.

There is no evidence to suggest PFAS has a detrimental effect on stock or plant health at levels likely to be found in contaminated areas.

If you are concerned, you can minimise exposure to PFAS by using an alternative source of water. 
 

For domestic pets like dogs and cats, DAF says there’s no evidence that suggests that PFAS have a detrimental effect on animal or plant health at levels likely to be found in contaminated areas. If you are concerned about your pet, you can choose to give them the same alternative water source as yourself.

We understand you may have questions about livestock and PFAS. Here is some advice provided by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF). 

CS Energy isn’t an authority on this topic. To make sure you’re getting the right information, we recommend referring to the DAF fact sheet or giving DAF a call on 13 25 23. 

Link to fact sheet: https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/information-for-primary-producers-pfas-contamination/resource/e5c20f54-a8d9-44e8-b15f-e277be465b78
 

Queensland Health advises that previous studies have shown that PFAS was eliminated from eggs 30 days after changing PFAS-free water. Based on this study, Queensland Health advises people to wait one month before consuming eggs. 

The advice from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries is no. Toxicology data suggests that PFAS are not genotoxic and therefore genetic traits will not be affected. There are currently no standards set for PFAS in agricultural products or food in Australia. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), the agency responsible for food standards in Australia, has recently completed a review of risks associated with PFAS in human diets and has not recommended any food regulatory measures at this stage.

Media releases

 

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